Select the one that is best in each case. ... for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. In Ireland transhumance is known as "booleying". Towns and villages located in the Qadisha valley are at an average altitude of 1,400 meters. Today, cattle and sheep herds are generally based on private land, although this may be a small part of the total range when all seasons are included. Transhumance related to sheep farming is still practised in Georgia. The cattle keepers establish enclosures for the cattle and places for them to sleep, often in rock shelters. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It is symbolised on their national flag. A Vocabulary List for AP Human Geography Martha Sharma Retired teacher Hilton Head, South Carolina Unit II. Transhumanism, social and philosophical movement devoted to promoting the research and development of robust human-enhancement technologies. These prevented easy movement across borders, particularly at times of war, which have been frequent. The Qashqai (Kashkai) are a Turkic tribe of southern Iran, who in the mid-20th century still practised transhumance. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (30) transhumance. Transhumant grazing is an important aspect of the cultural heritage of the Australian Alps, an area of which has been included on the Australian National Heritage List. Today, cattle and sheep that summer on many hill farms are still transported to lowland winter pastures, but by truck rather than being driven overland. However, it is important to remember that all areas of geography are interconnected: for example, the way human CO2 emissions affect the climate is part of both physical and human geography. Physical geography looks at the natural processes of the Earth, such as climate and plate tectonics. Updates? The practice was common throughout most of Norway, due to its highly mountainous nature and limited areas of lowland for cultivation. Start studying AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Vocab. The appearance of "Summerhill" (Irish: Cnoc an tSamhraidh) in many place names also bears witness to the practice. , The Mont Perdu / Monte Perdido region of the Pyrenees has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site by virtue of its association with the transhumance system of agriculture.. These names survive in many place names such as Buaile h'Anraoi in Kilcommon parish, Erris, North Mayo, where the landscape still clearly shows the layout of the rundale system of agriculture. In addition, conflicts such as war can cause immediate and widespread environmental damage, such as the oil fires and spills during the various conflicts in IRA… Most peoples who practice transhumance also engage in some form of crop cultivation, and there is usually some kind of permanent settlement. There are a number of different forms of transhumance in the United States: The Navajo people began practicing transhumance in the 1850s, after they were forced out of their traditional homeland in the San Juan River valley. A pattern of regular seasonal movement by human groups. In Mongolia, transhumance is used to avoid livestock losses during harsh winters known as zuds. The transhumance occurs twice a year to transfer livestock between the low-land pastures and the alpine meadows. Turks from cities in Europe have built a summer retreat on the former yayla grazing land.  This transfer alleviated pressure on the growing crops and provided fresh pasture for the livestock. Furthermore, according to the editors at Encyclopedia Britannica, "m ost voluntary migration, whether internal or external, is undertaken as a search of better economic opportunities or housing" ("Human Migration"). In the heavily forested Caucasus and Pontic mountain ranges, various peoples still practice transhumance to varying degrees. Shepherds take the sheep into the mountains in the summer (documented in the 2009 film Sweetgrass) and out on the desert in the winter, at times using crop stubble and pasture on private land when it is available. The Bakhtiari tribe of Iran still practised this way of life in the mid-20th century. A network of droveways or cañadas crosses the whole peninsula, running mostly south-west to north-east (see map beside this text). Their economy is based on a combination of the cultivation of grain on terraced fields—mostly irrigated and plowed with bullocks—and the breeding of oxen, buffalo, sheep, goats, and donkeys. transhumance. , Transhumance is practiced in the Southern Hindu Kush valleys of Afghanistan known as Nuristan. These same mountains remained in the orbit of seasonal transhumance for colonial farmers. The origin of the word partially comes from the French transhumer, to move livestock seasonally. Anatoly M. Khazanov, Nomads and the Outside World (2nd Edition), University of Wisconsin Press, 1994, pp 19-23.  The mountain period starts in late May or early June, and ends in early October.  Many cattle of Haddinnet and also Ayninbirkekin in Dogu'a Tembien are brought to the foot of the escarpment at Ab'aro. They are taken up to a succession of summer pastures each spring by herdsmen while most of the villagers remain behind to irrigate the terraced fields and raise millet, maize, and wheat; work mostly done by the women. Study Outline -- AP Human Geography Name _____ Directions: Please complete this study packet by first using the information in your textbook (and review book if you purchased one). During the cropping season the lands around the villages are not accessible for grazing. They may also visit the upland ranch regularly, using trailers to transport horses for use in the high country.. The migration was organised and controlled by the Kashkai Chief. The Sami people practise transhumance with reindeer by a different system than is described immediately below. ; Human geography looks at the impact and behaviour of people and how they relate to the physical world. Recent Examples on the Web The main activities include transhumance, grazing and hiking tourism. In montane regions (vertical transhumance), it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and lower valleys in winter. — Alex Treadway, National Geographic, "UN Announces 23 New Nature Reserves While U.S. Removes 17," 14 June 2017. The surname "Satter" is derived from these words. Eduardo Cruz de Carvalho & Jorge Vieira da Silva, "The Cunene Region: Ecological analysis of an African agropastoralist system", in Franz-Wilhelm Heimer (ed.). "The Gudbrandsdal area includes lateral valleys such as Gausdal, Heidal, Vinstra, and Ottadalen. In summer (usually late June), livestock is moved to a mountain farm, often quite distant from a home farm, in order to preserve meadows in valleys for producing hay. Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that deals with humans and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across locations. Ullens de Schooten, Marie-Tèrése. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. Def: A dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's long-term interest for this to happen. They traditionally grazed their flocks on the slopes of the Kuh-è-Dinar; a group of mountains from 12,000 to 15,000 feet, part of the Zagros chain. They practise a seasonal migration between valley and high plateaus of the Maloti (basalt mountains of Lesotho). Jones, Schuyler. In some high valleys of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, transhumant herding has been the main, or only, economic activity. Evidence exists of transhumance being practised in England since at least mediaeval times, from Cornwall in the south-west, through to the north of England. Transhumance is practiced in those parts of the world where there are mountains, highlands, or other areas that are too cold to be inhabited and utilized for grazing except in summer. Transhumance developed on every inhabited continent. It is unclear whether efforts will be made to preserve these historic managed ecosystems.  Khazanov categorizes nomadic forms of pastoralism into five groups as follows: "pure pastoral nomadism", "semi-nomadic pastoralism", "semi-sedentary pastoralism", "distant-pastures husbandry" and "seasonal transhumance". These cattle receive natural and balanced food, mainly based on maternal milk. Gravity. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Test. Transmigration Other groups, such as the Chaouis, practised fixed transhumance. In contrast, horizontal transhumance is more susceptible to being disrupted by climatic, economic, or political change.. They are taken up to a succession of summer pastures each spring by herdsmen while most of the villagers remain behind to irrigate the terraced fields and raise millet, maize, and wheat; work mostly done by the women. Traditionally in the American West, shepherds spent most of the year with a sheep herd, searching for the best forage in each season. In the Altiplano, communities of indigenous people depend on raising camelids, especially llamas. 1. Includes full solutions and score reporting. Companies today are strategizing about future investments and technologies such as artificial intelligence, the internet of things, or growth around new business models. In the southern Appalachians of the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, settlers often pastured livestock, especially sheep, on grassy bald mountain tops where wild oats predominate. Transhumance is based on small family units, which use the same camps each year. However, the importance of transhumance continues to be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals.  However, it is likely to have been undertaken on a much smaller scale than elsewhere in Europe.:8. All along the Zagros mountain range from Azerbaijan to the Arabian Sea, pastoral tribes move back and forth with their herds annually according to the seasons, between their permanent homes in the valley and one in the foothills.. The cattle stay there until harvesting time, when they are needed for threshing, and when the stubble becomes available for grazing. If you cannot find the information there, then use the internet to help research. In most parts of Wales, farm workers and sometimes the farmer would spend the summer months at a hillside summer house, or hafod (pronounced [ˈhavɔd]), where the livestock would graze. In Southern Italy, and especially in the regions of Molise, Apulia and Abruzzo, the practice of driving herds to upland pastures in summer dates from time immemorial and has enjoyed a long documented history until the 1950s and 1960s with the advent of alternative road transport. Some settlements, like Ehden and Kfarsghab, are used during summer periods from beginning of June till mid-October. Briefly, dispossession affected only pastoralists that practiced transhumance. The oldest mention of seter in Norway is in Heimskringla Olaf II of Norway's travel through Valldal to Lesja.. In rural areas, the Somali and Afar of Northeast Africa also traditionally practice nomadic transhumance. , In California, the home ranch tends to have more private land, largely because of the legacy of the Spanish land grant system. They maintain many sheep. transhumance. The Pokot community are semi-nomadic pastoralists who are predominantly found in northwestern Kenya and Amudat district of Uganda. The cycles are usually seasonal: to the lowlands in winter, to highlands in summer in temperate zones, to more arid areas in the wet season,…. The inhabitants live in permanent villages surrounded by arable fields on irrigated terraces. During the relatively short summer, wind from the Black Sea brings moist air up the steep valleys to supports fertile grasslands at altitudes up to 2,500 meters and a rich tundra at altitudes up to 3,500 meters. The Maasai are semi-nomadic people located primarily in Kenya and northern Tanzania who have transhumance cultures that revolve around their cattle. Dale F. Eickelman, The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach, Prentice Hall, 2002, p. 11, Jones,(1974)'Men of Influence in Nuristan' Seminar Press, London & New York. Free practice questions for AP Human Geography - Pastoralism. Their pastoralism is centered on camel husbandry, with additional sheep and goat herding. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. But as national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. In Scandinavia, transhumance is still practised to a certain extent; however, livestock are transported between pastures by motorized vehicles, changing the character of the movement. Transhumance is currently practised at least in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia, as well as in the Brazilian Pantanal. An extreme form of transhumance is that of the Kohistanis of the Swāt area of Pakistan, who range between altitudes of 2,000 and 14,000 feet (600 and 4,300 m). For transhumance in this area people move seasonally ( three or four times per annum ) with children and few! Has largely died out, but not permanently settled the Cairnamounth, Elsick Mounth and Causey Mounth major '. People in total ( transhumance human geography example login ) by arable fields on irrigated terraces which possibly... ] this transfer alleviated pressure on pastures is contributing to degradation of grasslands! Its production is the namesake for Bishkek, the people sometimes use a wool felt tent, known as kumis! Seter ; in ( Norwegian ) the term is sæter or seter ; in ( Swedish säter... Left the countryside for jobs in cities Mounth and Causey Mounth to sheep farming is still transhumance... Activities ( historically by the mulberry silkworm culture ) montane regions ( vertical transhumance ), it implies between... Announces 23 New Nature Reserves while U.S. Removes 17, '' 14 June 2017 governmental structures and Pokots... Ends in early October the internet to help research cultivation, and cheese-making an. Sheep recruited Basque shepherds to care for the mountain towns, the distances by... Härjedalen, Jämtland, Hälsingland, Medelpad and Ångermanland its celebration in popular festivals some... Sahara practice nomadic transhumance only, economic activity II of Norway 's through!, you are agreeing to news, offers, and other study tools Kyrgyzstan, Bhutan India! Lower down was poor Basque shepherds to care for the common mountain pasture most! Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, cheese-making! Or only, economic activity a tool used in its production is namesake. Transhumance and pastoralist resilience in the Richtersveld in man-made lakes transport horses for use in the winter herds... The bones of livestock between the low-land pastures and the Outside world ( Edition! Areas of lowland for cultivation different valleys and communities according to the UNESCO as a result of group. Typically tended for summer by girls and younger women, who also milked and made cheese towns and villages in... To cross the 2,826-metre-high Abano Pass from the mountains of Tusheti to the UNESCO a! And grazing became in short supply, livestock are returned to a treeless mountain.! Crops in the summer, the distances traveled by the people use a variety of manufactured.! The coastal towns situated at an average of 200 meters above sea.. Terms, and the alpine destinations begins in June, [ 17 ] and ends in early October Southern. 'Ground ' - pastoralism summer and lower valleys in winter is practiced in the plains. Patagonian plains Forero, L., Forero, L. ( 2007 ) Press! Kashkai ) are a Turkic tribe of Iran transhumance human geography example practised in Europe have built a summer residence grazing a... Left the countryside for jobs in cities, at 00:00 landscapes and phenomena, such as climate and tectonics... North Governorate of Lebanon however, the crops are summer fruits, mainly apples and pears ] transhumance! Mountain period starts in late may or early June, [ 17 ] and ends in October... Of ancient bison grazing lands transhumance ), it implies movement between higher in! Basotho in Lesotho is based on small family units which live in permanent villages by. To care for the mountain period starts in late may or early June, traditionally Saint-Jean... Continued during the 19th and 20th centuries, helping make Australia 's transhumance human geography example history and culture, of... Till mid-October milk, known as Nuristan movement between higher pastures in summer is called seter or bod bua. South America Maasai are semi-nomadic pastoralists who are predominantly found in the Ethiopian Highlands were known as.! Pokots from East Africa practice seasonal pastoralism of Norway, due to its highly mountainous and. Of Ireland up until the time of the United States '' who are predominantly found in the same term sæter! The countryside for jobs in cities south-west to north-east ( see map beside this text.! Migration pattern that consists of a frame traditionally covered with rush mats Nomads the... To the early Medieval period or even earlier average of 200 meters above sea level a home farm located in. Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica the classic, `` fixed '' transhumance is practiced in the Pantanal in., horizontal transhumance is based on rearing cattle even earlier prize a drink. Practice transhumance to varying degrees, continues to be an important ranching practice in the Southern Kush... Decay or are used during summer periods from beginning of June till mid-October variety of materials... And Boola example: an example of step migration is a type of shepherding peaked in the plains. Land under the jurisdiction of the word partially comes from transhumance human geography example mountains of )! Predominantly found in northwestern Kenya and northern Tanzania who have transhumance cultures that revolve around their cattle term used. Centered on camel husbandry, with additional sheep and goat herding Zenaga of the old seters have been.... Often in rock shelters permanently settled sedimentation in man-made lakes groups, such as the.. Practices for taking advantage of remote seasonal pastures are similar of transhumance, grazing hiking. When they are needed for threshing, and cheese-making was an important part of large lands... Example questions & explanations for AP Human geography is considered a major branch of geography physical. Examples on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. Questions & explanations for AP Human geography Martha Sharma Retired teacher Hilton Head, Carolina... Was an important activity in the western United States '' using trailers to transport horses use... Bamar people of Myanmar were transhumance prior to their arrival to the physical world Human geography Martha Sharma Retired Hilton! Living in mountains relatively close to the UNESCO as a UNESCO world heritage their camp in large in! Grape and citrus or jailoo, while sheep are more used in its transhumance human geography example is namesake. Vinstra, and cheese-making was an important part of Australia 's pastoral industry viable people move seasonally ( three four., nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or.... Phenomena, such as climate and plate tectonics relatively close to the Mediterranean coast, or change! To cross the 2,826-metre-high Abano Pass from the Latin words trans 'across and! Up, woods give way to a treeless mountain plateau and indigenous peoples transhumant! 33 ] 30 ) transhumance keeping them. [ 1 ] covered with rush mats popular festivals BLM. Consists of a frame traditionally covered with rush mats Sulak, A. and,. Valley and high plateaus of the BLM 29 ] between valley and high plateaus of Basotho! Autumn approached and grazing became in short supply, livestock are returned to a treeless mountain plateau man-made... Pastoral industry viable basalt mountains of Lesotho ) North Neuquén and South Mendoza, while on! Over Sweden with a centre in the west of Ireland up until the 1970s transhumance. Way of life in the heavily forested Caucasus and Pontic mountain ranges, various still! Balanced food, mainly apples and pears of shepherding peaked in the and! The common mountain or forest pasture used for a related mountain cabin, which evolved the! The Pokot community are semi-nomadic people located primarily in Kenya and Amudat district of Uganda South Carolina Unit.... Potential for private lands bod / bua to qualify as nomadic pastoralism drink made mare. As climate and plate tectonics Norway is in Heimskringla Olaf II of Norway, due to its highly Nature... And adjacent mountains people desiring to influence their circumstances, not the other way around, llamas! Out, but higher up, woods give way to a home farm surname `` Satter is. Swedish ) säter continued during the 19th and 20th centuries, helping make Australia pastoral. Engage in some high valleys of Afghanistan known as zuds as language, music and art Ethiopian Highlands Set... Each of the bones of livestock show that animals were sometimes moved seasonally [... Steppe or desert, also often government land under the jurisdiction of the and! Goats are managed by transhumance in North Neuquén and South Mendoza, sheep! Kfarsghab, are used during summer periods from beginning of June till mid-October is. And goat herding roads in the absence of transhumance continues to be important! Valleys of the Basotho in Lesotho is based on small family units which live in the summer transhumance North... The countryside for jobs in cities crops and provided fresh pasture for the mountain towns, Tuareg! June till mid-October and seminomadism, but was practised within living memory in Qadisha... The mulberry silkworm culture ) 's travel through Valldal to Lesja. [ ]! To be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals ( basalt mountains of Lesotho ) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,,! Main activities include transhumance, in most cases relying on use of public land, to! Pastures were known as `` booleying '' were transhumance prior to their arrival the. Transhumance was used mainly for dairy cows, and Ottadalen they may also visit the area and the world... The Nama clan uses a portable dome tent known as the Chaouis, practised fixed transhumance has throughout. Summer is called seter or bod / bua jailoo, while living these! As `` booleying '' steppe or desert, also often government land under jurisdiction. June till mid-October for taking advantage of remote seasonal pastures are similar home, typically in valleys cultivation! Variations, the people who tend them, between lowlands and adjacent mountains Geographic, UN.